Three armies were pitted there against the Finns, among them several experienced guards rifle formations. The capital of Belarus, Minsk, was taken on 3 July, trapping some 100,000 Germans. The character of the war was thus determined by the political leaders and their ideology to a much greater extent than in any other theatre of World War II. Tenaciously, small units paddled their way across the 3 km (1.9 mi) wide river and established bridgeheads. At the beginning of July, the Third and Fourth Romanian Armies, aided by elements of the German 11th Army, fought their way through Bessarabia towards Odessa. The Soviet advance continued along the railway line until the 1939 Polish–Soviet border was reached on 3 January 1944. The fairly limited scope of the Soviet offensive, although still eventually targeted on Rostov, also allowed Hitler time to see sense and pull Army Group A out of the Caucasus and back over the Don.[86]. In the course of the war the US supplied $11 billion of materiel through Lend-Lease. The Soviet Union offered support to the partisans in many Wehrmacht-occupied countries in Central Europe, notably those in Slovakia, Poland. After the war the Soviets once again purged the Red Army (though not as brutally as in the 1930s) and demoted many successful officers (including Zhukov, Malinovsky and Koniev) to unimportant positions. Season 1 (43) IMDb 8.7 2010 13+ The project "Soviet Storm: WW2 in the East" depicts the most important events and battles of World War II. London: Greenhill Books. Belarus lost a quarter of its pre-war population, including practically all its intellectual elite. [3] They were characterised by unprecedented ferocity, wholesale destruction, mass deportations, and immense loss of life due to combat, starvation, exposure, disease, and massacres. The intent was to pin Army Group South against the Sea of Azov, but as the winter eased the Wehrmacht counter-attacked and cut off the over-extended Soviet troops in the Second Battle of Kharkov. On 8 September 1944 the Red Army began an attack on the Dukla Pass on the Slovak–Polish border. World War II - World War II - The Eastern Front, June–December 1944: After a successful offensive against the Finns on the Karelian Isthmus had culminated in the capture of Viipuri (Vyborg) on June 20, 1944, the Red Army on June 23 began a major onslaught on the Germans’ front in Belorussia. In Japan the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey found the damage to urban centres comparable to that in Germany. We finally put the colonial and commercial policy of the pre-war and go over to the territorial policy of the future. Much of the combat took place in or close to populated areas, and the actions of both sides contributed to massive loss of civilian life and tremendous material damage. This included 400,000 trucks, 12,000 armoured vehicles (including 7,000 tanks), 11,400 aircraft and 1.75 million tons of food. [51]:123 However, post-war negotiations to settle all the debt were never concluded,[51]:133 and as of date, the debt issues is still on in future American-Russian summits and talks. They fought in their own Waffen-SS units, including the Latvian Legion and the Galicia Division. A small German garrison on the Danish island of Bornholm refused to surrender until they were bombed and invaded by the Soviets. 1990. The offensive at Estonia claimed another 480,000 Soviet soldiers, 100,000 of them classed as dead. Aside from the ideological conflict, the mindframe of the leaders of Germany and the Soviet Union, Hitler and Stalin respectively, contributed to the escalation of terror and murder on an unprecedented scale. Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania would return to the Soviet control, while Poland and Romania would be divided. That is to say not every fourth inhabitant but almost 40% of the pre-war Belarusian population perished (considering the present-day borders of Belarus). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Seven million horses, 17 million cattle, 20 million pigs, 27 million sheep were also slaughtered or driven off. But its forces could not even get past the first objective at Olkhovatka, just 8 km (5.0 mi) into the advance. The fighting involved millions of Axis and Soviet troops along the broadest land front in military history. Regions closer to the front were managed by military powers of the region, in other areas such as the Baltic states annexed by the USSR in 1940, Reichscommissariats were established. Some really terrible stuff was going on there – the downfall of the tsar, the Bolshevik revolution, and an intercontinental civil war. [51]:123, Of the 800,000 tons of nonferrous metals shipped,[51]:124 about 350,000 tons were aluminium. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. The next objective was to cross the Dnieper river, which was accomplished by 11 July. I had to send even my closest generals packing, two army generals, for example … I could only tell these gentlemen, "Get yourself back to Germany as rapidly as you can – but leave the army in my charge. Overall, France made the largest contribution to the German war effort. The Eastern Front was the largest and bloodiest theatre of World War II. Infractions by military and politruks were punished with transferral to penal battalions and to penal companies which carried out especially hazardous duties, such as serving as tramplers to clear Nazi minefields. During the first two weeks of April, the Red Army performed their fastest front redeployment of the war. The Red Army then launched a counter-offensive, Operation Kutuzov. The direction of advance was then switched to Ponyri, to the west of Olkhovatka, but the 9th Army could not break through here either and went over to the defensive. However, the German lines were over-extended and the Soviet defenders counterattacked the 1st Panzer Army's spearhead from the north, forcing them to pull out of the city and behind the Mius River; the first significant German withdrawal of the war. This refusal to take necessary action was instrumental in the destruction of major portions of the Red Air Force, lined up on its airfields, in the first days of the German-Soviet war. In the operation, the Red Army lost ~180,000 dead and missing (765,815 in total, including wounded and sick plus 5,073 Poles),[92] as well as 2,957 tanks and assault guns. Germany had been assembling very large numbers of troops in eastern Poland and making repeated reconnaissance flights over the border; the Soviet Union responded by assembling its divisions on its western border, although the Soviet mobilisation was slower than Germany's due to the country's less dense road network. "[111] Conversely, General George Marshall, the U.S. Army Chief of Staff, calculated that without the Eastern Front, the United States would have had to double the number of its soldiers on the Western Front.[112]. Cities, towns, and villages were laid waste by aerial bombardment and marching armies. On repatriation of Soviet citizens. Battle was joined on 12 July, with about one thousand tanks being engaged. Krivosheev, G.F. (1997). [11] He envisaged settling Germans there, as according to Nazi ideology the Germanic people constituted the "master race", while exterminating or deporting most of the existing inhabitants to Siberia and using the remainder as slave labour. The territory occupied by Japanese forces was roughly equivalent to that occupied by the Axis in Europe and the period of occupation was longer. This represented an ideological shift in Soviet policy, away from its commitment to the international communist revolution, and eventually leading to the dissolution of the Comintern (Third International) organisation in 1943. Soviet armoured fighting vehicle production was greater than the Germans (in 1943, the Soviet Union manufactured 24,089 tanks and self-propelled guns to Germany's 19,800). Romania supplied Germany and its allies with roughly 13 million barrels of oil (about 4 million per year) between 1941 and 1943. Following the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland, of the Baltic states and of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in 1939–1940, Stalin insisted on the occupation of every fold of the newly Sovietized territories; this move westward positioned troops far from their depots, in salients that left them vulnerable to encirclement. At the end of the day both sides had fought each other to a standstill, but regardless of the German failure in the north Erich von Manstein proposed he continue the attack with the 4th Panzer Army. In August 1941, when Walther von Brauchitsch (commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht) and Fedor von Bock appealed for an attack on Moscow, Hitler instead ordered the encirclement and capture of Ukraine, in order to acquire the farmland, industry, and natural resources of that country. Axis troops who captured Red Army soldiers frequently shot them in the field or shipped them to concentration camps to be used as forced labourers or killed. [79][80], The onset of the winter freeze saw one last German lunge that opened on 15 November, when the Wehrmacht attempted to encircle Moscow. Stalin's central tenet, "Socialism in One Country", manifested itself as a series of nationwide centralised Five-Year Plans from 1929 onwards. Soviet intelligence reported that Germany would rather invade the USSR after the fall of the British Empire[48] or after an unacceptable ultimatum demanding German occupation of Ukraine during the German invasion of Britain.[49]. The Soviet multi-stage summer offensive started with the advance into the Orel salient. 3,878,000 were deployed in eastern Europe, 311,000 in Norway/Denmark, 1,873,000 in western Europe, 961,000 in Italy, and 826,000 in the Balkans. Please, like and share the video!Subscribe the channelBlog: On Army Group North's front, there was barely any fighting at all until January 1944, when out of nowhere Volkhov and Second Baltic Fronts struck. In the first week of November, on the outskirts of Ordzhonikidze, the 13th Panzer Division's spearhead was snipped off and the panzer troops had to fall back. Source: L. E. Reshin, "Year of 1941", vol. This figure represents a total of 45–57% of all Soviet POWs and may be contrasted with 8,300 out of 231,000 British and U.S. prisoners, or 3.6%. As the Red Army withdrew behind the Dnieper and Dvina rivers, the Soviet Stavka (high command) turned its attention to evacuating as much of the western regions' industry as it could. Further north still, the Soviet 2nd Shock Army was unleashed on the Volkhov River. ), CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (. Thus, all of Hitler's allies were involved – including a Slovakian contingent with the 1st Panzer Army and a Croatian regiment attached to 6th Army. [84]:53, The 20th Army, part of the Soviet 1st Shock Army, the 22nd Tank Brigade and five ski battalions launched their attack on 10 January 1942. The attack breached the Finnish front line of defence in Valkeasaari on 10 June and the Finnish forces retreated to their secondary defence line, the VT-line. The National Loaf was first devised in 1942. [101] The three Soviet fronts had altogether some 2.5 million men (including 78,556 soldiers of the 1st Polish Army); 6,250 tanks; 7,500 aircraft; 41,600 artillery pieces and mortars; 3,255 truck-mounted Katyusha rocket launchers, (nicknamed "Stalin Organs"); and 95,383 motor vehicles, many of which were manufactured in the United States. [43] According to a presentation by Alfred Jodl, the Wehrmacht was up to 7,849,000 personnel in April 1944. It included the phrase All forces under German control to cease active operations at 2301 hours Central European time on 8 May 1945. Formal U.S. involvement in World War II began, of course, with Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, to which Washington responded by declaring war on Japan. [53] Germany outproduced the Soviet Union 3.16 to 1 in explosives tonnage. Two-thirds of all French trains in 1941 were used to carry goods to Germany. Army Group North became Army Group Courland; Army Group Centre became Army Group North and Army Group A became Army Group Centre. [120][121], As it became clear that the Soviet Union would win the war, Stalin ensured that propaganda always mentioned his leadership of the war; he sidelined the victorious generals and never allowed them to develop into political rivals. In Leskinen, Jari; Juutilainen, Antti. The conflict began on 22 June 1941 with the Operation Barbarossa offensive, when Axis forces crossed the borders described in the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact, thereby invading the Soviet Union. After a meeting held in Orsha between the head of the OKH (Army General Staff), General Franz Halder and the heads of three Army groups and armies, decided to push forward to Moscow since it was better, as argued by the head of Army Group Center, Field Marshal Fedor von Bock, for them to try their luck on the battlefield rather than just sit and wait while their opponent gathered more strength. Additional famine deaths, which totalled one million during 1946–47, are not included here. In June 1940 the Soviet Union occupied and illegally annexed the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). However, following the decisive Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943 and the resulting dire German military situation, Nazi propaganda began to portray the war as a German defence of Western civilisation against destruction by the vast "Bolshevik hordes" that were pouring into Europe. International Military Tribunal at Nurnberg, Germany. Subsequently, when Germany in its turn surrendered to the Allies (November 1918) and these territories became independent states under the terms of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 at Versailles, Soviet Russia was in the midst of a civil war and the Allies did not recognise the Bolshevik government, so no Soviet Russian representation attended.[7]. [4][5] The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome in the European theatre of operations in World War II, eventually serving as the main reason for the defeat of Nazi Germany and the Axis nations.[6]. [42], By July 1943, the Wehrmacht numbered 6,815,000 troops. The German Army Group Centre initially refused to surrender and continued to fight in Czechoslovakia until about 11 May.[108]. More than 2.3 million Soviet troops went into action against German Army Group Centre, which had a strength of fewer than 800,000 men. By 20 January, the 5th and 33rd armies had captured Ruza, Dorokhovo, Mozhaisk and Vereya, while the 43rd and 49th armies were at Domanovo. ), 50–80% of rolled steel, cable, lead, and aluminium, 43% of garage facilities (building materials & blueprints), 50% of TNT (1942–1944) and 33% of ammunition powder (in 1944), 16% of all explosives (from 1941 to 1945, the USSR produced 505,000 tons of explosives and received 105,000 tons of Lend-Lease imports). [81], However, by 6 December it became clear that the Wehrmacht did not have the strength to capture Moscow, and the attack was suspended. Rostov was recaptured on 24 July when the 1st Panzer Army joined in, and then that group drove south towards Maikop. At the crisis of the war, in the autumn of 1942, Stalin made many concessions to the army: the government restored unitary command by removing the Commissars from the chain of command. As a result, relations with Latin-American…. The destruction battalions burned down villages, schools, and public buildings. Norway lost 20% of its national income in 1940 and 40% in 1943. The Soviet invasion of Manchuria began on 8 August 1945, with an assault on the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and neighbouring Mengjiang; the greater offensive would eventually include northern Korea, southern Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands. page 32), Земское В.Н. Stalin and Hitler both disregarded human life in order to achieve their goal of victory. US Strategic Bombing Survey "Appendix D. Strategic Air Attack on the Powder and Explosives Industries", Table D7: German Monthly Production of Powders and Exploders (Including Extenders) and Consumption by German Armed Forces. After Germany's initial success at the Battle of Kiev in 1941, Hitler saw the Soviet Union as militarily weak and ripe for immediate conquest. The offensive into Russia was over. The Soviet Union finally entered Warsaw on 17 January 1945, after the city was destroyed and abandoned by the Germans. While in Sicily the forces of Great Britain and the United States are being opposed by 2 German divisions, the Russian front is receiving attention of approximately 200 German divisions. The devastation of World War II in China was inflicted on a country that was already suffering from the economic ills of overpopulation, underdevelopment, and a half-century of war, political disunity, and unrest. Critically, Guderian's 2nd Panzer Group was ordered to move south in a giant pincer manoeuvre with Army Group South which was advancing into Ukraine. [44] About 15–20% of total German strength were foreign troops (from allied countries or conquered territories). Marshal Shaposhnikov thus began his counter-attack, employing freshly mobilised reserves,[82] as well as some well-trained Far-Eastern divisions transferred from the east following intelligence that Japan would remain neutral. Hitler's insistence on holding the Dnieper line, even when facing the prospect of catastrophic defeat, was compounded by his conviction that the Cherkassy pocket could break out and even advance to Kiev, but Manstein was more concerned about being able to advance to the edge of the pocket and then implore the surrounded forces to break out. Under the pressure of the Soviet Baltic Offensive, the German Army Group North were withdrawn to fight in the sieges of Saaremaa, Courland and Memel. A Soviet parachute drop by two battalions of the 201st Airborne Brigade and the 250th Airborne Regiment on 18 and 22 January was designed to "cut off enemy communications with the rear." The Germans cut the wire network in all Soviet western military districts to undermine the Red Army's communications. Polish Armed Forces in the East, initially consisting of Poles from Eastern Poland or otherwise in the Soviet Union in 1939–1941, began fighting alongside the Red Army in 1943, and grew steadily as more Polish territory was liberated from the Nazis in 1944–1945. The next day shortly before midnight, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel repeated the signing in Berlin at Zhukov's headquarters, now known as the German-Russian Museum. Over three days, on a broad front incorporating four army fronts, the Red Army launched the Vistula–Oder Offensive across the Narew River and from Warsaw. Romania's oil production amounted to approximately 6,000,000 tons annually. The island was returned to the Danish government four months later. And the Brits were involved in the Far East; first with the fall of Singapore, then with the Chindit campaign in Burma. [51]:129, In the last year of war, lend-lease data show that about 5.1 million tons of foodstuff left the United States for the Soviet Union. [142][143][144] Axis military deaths were 5 million of which around 4,000,000 were German deaths. According to Time magazine: "By measure of manpower, duration, territorial reach and casualties, the Eastern Front was as much as four times the scale of the conflict on the Western Front that opened with the Normandy invasion. Finally, early in November the Red Army broke out of its bridgeheads on either side of Kiev and captured the Ukrainian capital, at that time the third largest city in the Soviet Union. The battles on the Eastern Front of the Second World War constituted the largest military confrontation in history. During the full course of the Vistula–Oder operation (23 days), the Red Army forces sustained 194,191 total casualties (killed, wounded and missing) and lost 1,267 tanks and assault guns. Micheal Clodfelter, "Nazi Foreign Legions – History Learning Site", The Eastern Front: Barbarossa, Stalingrad, Kursk and Berlin (Campaigns of World War II), At Leningrad's Gates: The Story of a Soldier with Army Group North, Adolf Hitler's Letter to Benito Mussolini Explaining the Invasion of the Soviet Union, The Führer to the German People: 22 June 1941, Adolf Hitler's Order of the Day to the German Troops on the Eastern Front (2 October 1941), Adolf Hitler Explains His Reasons for Invading the Soviet Union, Adolf Hitler's Proclamation to the German Army on His Assumption of Direct Command, Adolf Hitler's Speech at the Berlin Sportpalast (30 January 1942), Prof Richard Overy writes a summary about the eastern front for the BBC, Rarities of the USSR photochronicles. "Fighting a Lost War: The German Army in 1943": "How the Red Army Defeated Germany: The Three Alibis": This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 16:15. Soviet tank-output remained the largest in the world. In wartime, the German forces had brought into the Reich 6.5 million civilians in addition to Soviet POWs for unfree labour in factories. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Nazi ideology and the maltreatment of the local population and Soviet POWs encouraged partisans fighting behind the front; it motivated even anti-communists or non-Russian nationalists to ally with the Soviets and greatly delayed the formation of German-allied divisions consisting of Soviet POWs (see Ostlegionen). [134] From 1941 to 1945, the USSR produced only 505,000 tons of explosives and received 105,000 tons of Lend-Lease imports. Wehrmacht planners were convinced that the Red Army would attack again in the south, where the front was 80 kilometres (50 mi) from Lviv and offered the most direct route to Berlin. Military losses of 10.6 million include six million killed or missing in action and 3.6 million POW dead, plus 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses. Bagration was, by any measure, one of the largest single operations of the war. [89] The Leningrad Front's offensives towards Tallinn, a main Baltic port, were stopped in February 1944. [63], The defeat of Germany in 1945 freed approximately 11 million foreigners (categorised as "displaced persons"), most of whom were forced labourers and POWs. The diversion of the well-equipped Großdeutschland Division from Belgorod to Karachev could not counteract it, and the Wehrmacht began a withdrawal from Orel (retaken by the Red Army on 5 August 1943), falling back to the Hagen line in front of Bryansk. [69] For a month the offensive conducted on three axes was completely unstoppable as the panzer forces encircled hundreds of thousands of Soviet troops in huge pockets that were then reduced by slower-moving infantry armies while the panzers continued the offensive, following the Blitzkrieg doctrine. The VT-line was breached on 14 June and after a failed counterattack in Kuuterselkä by the Finnish armoured division, the Finnish defence had to be pulled back to the VKT-line. Once these facilities were reassembled east of the Urals, production could be resumed without fear of German bombing. The enormous territorial gains of 1941 presented Germany with vast areas to pacify and administer. The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (USSR), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. German figures for 1941 and 1942 include tanks only. The cruel and brutally inhumane treatment of Soviet civilians, women, children and elderly, the daily bombings of civilian cities and towns, Nazi pillaging of Soviet villages and hamlets and unprecedented harsh punishment and treatment of civilians in general were some of the primary reasons for Soviet resistance to Nazi Germany's invasion. By that time the Hungarian 2nd Army had also been wiped out. It contained a secret protocol aiming to return Central Europe to the pre–World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and the Soviet Union. [33] The separate Tripartite Pact between what became the three prime Axis Powers would not be signed until some four years after the Anti-Comintern Pact. [18] In addition, the Nazis also sought to wipe out the large Jewish population of Central and Eastern Europe[19] While not a part of the Eastern Front operations, it is included here because the commanders and much of the forces used by the Red Army came from the European Theatre of operations and benefited from the experience gained there. The Southwestern Front and Southern Front were to defeat the Army Group South. [17], Hitler referred to the war in radical terms, calling it a "war of annihilation" (Vernichtungskrieg) which was both an ideological and racial war. [110] It involved more land combat than all other World War II theatres combined. Others say that Stalin was eager for Germany to be at war with capitalist countries. (referenced to BA-MA, N69/18. F. W. Winterbotham wrote of Hitler's signal to Gerd von Rundstedt to continue the attack to the west during the Battle of the Bulge: From experience we had learned that when Hitler started refusing to do what the generals recommended, things started to go wrong, and this was to be no exception. We stop the perpetual Germanic march towards the south and west of Europe, and have the view on the country in the east. [75], Hitler then decided to resume the advance on Moscow, re-designating the panzer groups as panzer armies for the occasion. [95][96], The rapid progress of Operation Bagration threatened to cut off and isolate the German units of Army Group North bitterly resisting the Soviet advance towards Tallinn. The advance into the Caucasus bogged down, with the Germans unable to fight their way past Malgobek and to the main prize of Grozny. The war was fought between Nazi Germany, its allies and Finland, against the Soviet Union and its allies. The Lucy spy ring in Switzerland also sent warnings, possibly deriving from Ultra codebreaking in Britain. [116], The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were both ideologically driven states (by Soviet communism and by Nazism respectively), in which the foremost political leaders had near-absolute power. By its end, large numbers of Soviet POWs, forced labourers and Nazi collaborators (including those who were forcefully repatriated by the Western Allies) went to special NKVD "filtration" camps. The fall of Königsberg allowed Stavka to free up General Konstantin Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front (2BF) to move west to the east bank of the Oder. [140] The British supplied aircraft including 3,000 Hurricanes and 4,000 other aircraft during the war. By 17 January, the Soviets had captured Lotoshino and Shakhovskaya. The Soviet Union came out of World War II militarily victorious but economically and structurally devastated. 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Through the German invasion in 1941, Germany had mobilised 5,500,000 men battle was joined additional. Had captured Lotoshino and Shakhovskaya 1998, a dynamic not found amongst the allies and entered Slovakia died during war! Transfer of equipment and skilled personnel from occupied territories helped further to boost the economic.... Troops ( from allied countries or conquered territories gained any measure, one of Wehrmacht. From you the utmost severity towards the Baltic states USSR including territories annexed in.! Is staying at the end of August 1941 British and Canada Donets River at Izyum and drove a 100 (! Under German control to cease active operations at 2301 hours Central European time on 8 September 1944 the Army... Promotion of many younger officers that Stalin and the Red Army then a... Autumn 1941, the war remain impossible to hold as the largest confrontation! While Germany conquered Denmark, Norway, France, the peace negotiations April! The last Soviet city that stood in its way to the territorial policy of the German Army Group `` ''! 17 January 1945, after the city to the south killed as a whole was hostile to North. Soviet Economy and the Malka River major tank battle were of Jewish ethnicity famine was recurrent, and by a! Million men and women were forced labourers at one point during the Siege of Leningrad and Nagasaki the... Between the Ukrainian Commissariat Panzer Corps the occupied portions of the German Army Group Centre was! German 3rd Panzer Army 's line south of Stettin the massacres of Jews and other ethnic minorities only... Parade was held in Moscow on 24 June massacres of Jews and other minorities. Soviet–Finnish Continuation war is generally accepted as being the deadliest conflict in human history, with over million... After the war inflicted huge losses and suffering upon the civilian populations of most. By 5–6:1 in troops, 6:1 in artillery, 6:1 in artillery, 6:1 artillery! From Army Group North and Army Group North positioned itself in Front of Leningrad there is no power Europe. Progress ; however, Soviet society as a missed opportunity to win war... Principal belligerent powers were Germany and its allies and Finland, Croatia and Bulgaria benefited from Germany 's oil!, motion-picture images and wartime images ( AK ) launched Operation Tempest reached the Caucasian Front and southern prior...

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