Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry | Year: 2020 | Volume: 9 | Issue: 5 | Page: 767-774. endobj 1. >> play major role in future also. xڼ�=O1��� India is known for its traditional medicinal systems—Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. The most useful contributors to Greek medicine were the great philosophers such as Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. In India drugs of herbal origin have been used in traditional system of medicine such as Unani, Ayurveda since ancient times. 4 0 obj Drinks and food3. 2, Issue 2 (Research Article) Received on 27 December, 2014; received in revised form, 19 January, 2015; accepted, 27 January, 2015; published 01 February, 2015 GILBERT’S SYNDROME- A CASE WITH INTERPRETATION AND MANAGEMENT IN UNANI MEDICINE Shabnam Ansari 1*, Fasihuzzaman 2, … ), who freed medicine from the realm of superstition and magic, and gave it the status of science. Husain, Ahmad, et al. It is an important herbal plant is used in traditional system of medicine in Asia and Pacific Island especially in Indian medicine. Regimental therapy (Ilajbil tadbeer) – Use of exercise, climate change, massage, venesection, leaching, cupping, diet therapy etc.2. Related Journals of Siddha Medicine. <> It is about 5000 year old system of medicine native to India. 2(2): 98-101. The Unani system is the same as the Greek system of philosophy of medicine, which began in Ionia in Greece at that time. Background: Quality control of Unani polyherbal formulations is the need of the day for better acceptance of Unani medicine. Health is based on six essential elements:1. Unani system of medicme has its origin in Greece. Alternative System of Medicine . Although Unani system originated in Greece, passed through many countries, Arabs enriched it with their aptitude and experience and the system was brought to India during Medieval period. Unani system stresses on the importance of … Today, India is one of the leading countries in so for as the practice of Unani medicine is concerned. 4. 3 Department Of Pharmacognosy Al-ameen College, Bangalore, India.. Arab and Persian elaborations upon the Greek system of medicine by figures like Ibn Sina and al-Razi influenced the early development of Unani.. Surgery (Ilajbil Yad) – Surgical intervention in treatment as last resort.Our new YouTube Channel (Pharmacy-Dictionary)- https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCt6OXVV_2oxf5DD0Mad6e9AFacebook Page- www.facebook.com/pharmavideo/Facebook Group- https://www.facebook.com/groups/solutionpharamcyE-Mail- solutionpharmacy@gmail.comInstagram- https://www.instagram.com/solutionpharmacy/LinkedIn- http://linkedin.com/in/pushpendrakpatel Abstract: The Unani physician believes that the healthy state of the human body is maintained by a power known as Tabiyat or Quwwat-e-Mudabbira (medicatrix naturae), gifted to it from its creator. 7 0 obj Traditional medicine does not see only a single remedy or a single approach as being suitable for all people. Author links open overlay panel C Govindasamy a R Kannan b. [1] The plant-based traditional medicine system continuously plays an essential role in health Siddha system of medicine Unani System of Medicine Introduction: Unani system of medicine may be traced to that system of Greek medicine that was developed during the Arab civilization. Greek period2. Thereafter, the Romans further advanced these concepts. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON SOME IMMUNITY BOOSTER HERBS USED IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE. Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine: Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine. Pharmacognosy Journal | Year: 2020 | Volume: 12 | Issue: 6 | Page: 1252-1267. It is believed to have been established by the great physician and philosopher- Hippocrates (460-377 BC). The theoretical framework of Unani medicine is … The Ayurveda system of medicine uses about 700 species, Unani 700, Siddha 600, Amchi 600 and modern medicine around 30 species. Buqrat (better known as Hippocrates, 460-377 BC) is said to be a descendent of Aesculapius and recognised as ‘father of Unani medicine'. endobj B!�_�ew����-�7�Z��?��q��at��9sF�p���9�b7蘇@���� ��Y}y��k�p�&��j����HM��s�w�cܞ\��� .#��a���՛��Ne! Unani-Tibb (also known as Unani Medicine or Tibb) is a system of medicine based on the teachings of Hippocrates and Galen, subsequently developed into a comprehensive healthcare system by Arabic physicians, especially Ibn Sina (aka Avicenna). Role of Pharmacognosy in UNANI • It aims at treating the cause of disease and not its symptoms. In Siddha medicine the use of metal and minerals is predominant. The Unani System of Medicine has a long and impressive record in India. Unani medicine developed in the four time periods each in a different geographical belt:1. “Role of unani system of medicine in management of orofacial diseases: A review.” Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR 8.10 (2014): ZE12-ZE15. With the emerging interest in the world to adopt and study the traditional system and to exploit their potentials based on different health care systems, the evaluation of the rich heritage of the traditional medicine … Pharmacognosy can provide safe and effective drugs in combination with modern medicine system. Sleep and wakefulness4. Arab-Persian period3. Hippocrates is known as the father of this system of medicine. The Greeks had adopted the initial concepts of Medicine (Ṭibb) from Egypt and Mesopotamia and systematized them. Unani System of Medicine is a comprehensive medical system, which provides preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative healthcare. Altaf AA (2004) History of Unani medicine in India. �w�v>͈UHĀP[ZDˇ���$H�U�D缺���7A���y1���`� plΈ� 1Z"��S��a�07�1�?��-1"9H$6��܏�5q�g3���� Pharmacotherapy (Ilajbil dava) – use of drugs of plant, animal and mineral origin, either alone or in combination.3. Galen (Jalinoos-131-210-AD), developed it into an elaborate Medical System, AND, Arabian and Persian Physicians like Rhazes (850-925-AD) and Avicenna (980-1037-AD), gave a scientific basis to the system . It has been used for the treatment of autoimmune conditions, conditions of the central nervous, collagen disorders system and rheumatoid arthritis. %PDF-1.4 %���� <> endstream to Unani system of medicine, Ghaleez Saudavi Bukharat (thick melancholic vapours) ascend towards the face and gets trapped beneath the skin; the dominance of abnormal black bile (Galba-e-Sauda) in the skin and blood are also involved in the disease pathogenesis. The body fluids are composed of four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. PIP: A case study, based on the Unani Clinic in Aligarh Town, examines the practice of Unani traditional medicine in India. 5 0 obj Unani Medicine offers a number of drugs of plant origin to strengthen and enhance the body’s immune system. Arab and Persian elaborations upon the Greek system of medicine by figures like Ibn Sina and al-Razi influenced the early development of Unani.. Unani: Unani System of medicine is based on established knowledge and practices relating to promotion of positive health and prevention of diseases. Hii I,m ABHISHEK PATEL Welcome to our youtube channel EASY PHARMACY . It serves as the Health-promoting Effect because it is rich source of Anti-oxidant. stream Unani Research, Vol 1, Issue 2, Jul-Dec, 2011, 18-23 . Unani medicine is one of the oldest traditional systems of medicine which has been treating chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (Talayyaful-Kabid) for centuries. INTRODUCTION . The fundamentals, diagnosis and treatment India has rich wealth of important medicinal flora due to variable climatic conditions. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 2 (6): 219-221 ... Drug of Unani System, Medicine 1. In nature, more than 65 species of mangrove plants, 18 species are found to be widely used by local medical practitioners in many countries like India, Africa, Southeast Asia, South America, Australia etc. stream History of Pharmacognosy The Chinese system of medicine is still prevalent. 1. Introduction Siyah consists of mature dried fruits of piper nigrum Linn. Homoeopathic system of medicine 4. <> As per this traditional system, the human body is composed of four basic elements: earth, air, water and fire having cold, hot, wet and dry temperaments respectively. Introduction and Importance of Medicinal Plants and Herbs. Journal TOCs Latest Contents. <> How to Download Notes in PDF from Solution Pharmacy Facebook Group Using Laptophttps://youtu.be/cE5MAt0J6hs Using Mobile https://youtu.be/ntzXKi2pA5UFree Model Question Paper for Pharmacognosy \u0026 Phytochemistry- I (4th Semester- All Units) – https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1tpnAJhMgQY5O42qeOCye2QZy7416Fwo2?usp=sharingFree Pharmacognosy \u0026 Phytochemistry-I Notes- (4th Semester)https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1SSFm5u6JDx1BeJGy1KCUbV7UKB0Y1hfN?usp=sharing1. History of Pharmacognosy Space Air Energy Water Matter . Unani System of Medicine- Part 1 (History, Basic Concept and Principle) in Hindi https://youtu.be/b2yApIaw5vE 2. Ayurveda… Unani System of Medicine - Introduction and Challenges Ahmad Husain 1, G. D. Sofi 1, Tajuddin Tajuddin 2, Raman Dang 3, Nilesh Kumar 3 1 National Institute Of Unani Medicine Kottegepalya, Bangalore, India 2 Department of Ilmul Advia, AMU, Aligharh, India. The Unani system of medicine is a well established scientific system of Medicine based on the teaching of Hippocrates (Buqrat-460-377BC). The Unani system of medicine passed through many countries, getting enriched along the way, before being introduced in India around the 8th century. Although Unani system originated in Greece, passed through many countries, Arabs enriched it with their aptitude and experience and the system was brought to India during Medieval period. The early medicines of Pharaohs (3000 BC), the Greek … Unani System of Medicine- Part 2 (Diagnosis and Treatment) in Hindi by Solution Pharmacy https://youtu.be/CWlMJsWAreMUNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINEThe Unani system of medicine; sometimes referred to as Greeco-Arab medicine or Unani Tibb; is based on Greek philosophy. However, its subject matter is directed towards the modern allopathic medicine. Hongal S, Torwane NA, Pankaj G, Chandrashekhar BR, Gouraha A (2014) Role of Unani system of medicine in management of Orofacial disease: A review. J Clin Diagn Res 8: 10. Phytotherapy has continued to play a significant role in the prevention and treatment of diseases (communicable and noncommunicable). Show more This system of medicine has been introduced by the Arabs in India. The Unani system of medicine, sometimes referred to as the "Greco-Arab" medicine or "Unani Tibb"; is based on Greek philosophy, originated in Greece and the term Unani is derived from 'Unan', Arabic and Urdu for 'Greece'. Role of unani system in health care. Pharmacognosy has been basically evolved as an applied science pertaining to the study of all types of drugs of natural origin. The theoretical framework of Unani medicine is based on the work of Hippocrates (460-377 BC). ͙t .#SC=K`щ�PD�ȃ�4��f�@� �� cK=`j�0�pG0(է@r�.��k211�U�aʇ�*$7{1����T ��"?�ZZ�ҿ��J#��@D�R.XЊ$b�#zz���X����1����g��:��$�fM�HD:e�H�p zH4 G�:H ��"�A����?�I�Q�=��M4���u4��©d��h�*w��u# ���Iψ&�`(u�h T�Ѧ4 �[DgP�+�������H}" ����OD�b�N]"�d����G�v���&�F�������)��p������ǂ�l������X*�C�f��r ���`f���J��T���D�d� ,ƀa�� �t ����E� ĉ�Q�cs������9�ieh��>� H*1��9/��p�45�P��� endobj <> used in Unani system of medicine to treat various diseases. EAp�a�l�V�}@�!�T���5� $LLS�@��:�Y��Aꀷ@��`�b��n��w���E�~��l�U>�9*�1�vj� ���@�xp��`�rSAFUj�k��5�U%(��-0G�*A�"�[���D��{�W�[&��# Family Phone: 9891928622 Email: makram@jamiahamdard.ac.in Filfil Siyah (Piper nigrum Linn) an important Drug of Unani System of Medicine: A Review Khursheed A Ansari and Mohd Akram Herbs and Spices are very common ingredients of most of the compound drugs of Unani (Greco- The Unani System of Medicine, as its name suggests, originated in Yūnān - ancient Greece. xڼ�OK�0���sLƙ������� dmW�[� 1 0 obj There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. ... PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON SOME IMMUNITY BOOSTER HERBS USED IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE. <> Unani Medicine is an ancient system of medicine that is believed to have originated in the Perso-Arabic regions dating back almost 5000 years. • Internal medicine Huang Di Nei Jing Which is believed to be prepared between 200 BC and 100 AD. Siddha Medicine. Alternative Systems of Medicine 7 Ayurveda System 7 Siddha System 8 Unani System 9 Homeopathy System 10 Chinese System 10 Kampo System 11 Aromatherapy System 12 Naturopathy 12 Yoga 12 CHAPTER 1 Pharmacognosy: Scope and History Crude Drug: Classification 13 Alphabetical Classification 13 Morphological Classification (Organised and Un-organised Crude Drugs) 13 Taxonomic … Today, the Unani system, with its recognized practitioners, research and educational institutions, and hospitals, forms an important part of the healthcare delivery system in several countries, especially in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The history of herbal medication is as recent as human civilization. Ayurvedic system of medicine 3. Indian traditional medicine is based on different systems including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. The most useful contributors to Greek medicine were the great philosophers such as Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Centre for History of Medicine and Science Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India. The present review paper strives to explain the potential role of Unani medicinal plants used in the treatment of Kalaf. Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine. Mangrove plants are found to have medicinal values and have been used traditionally by local medical practitioners in worldwide. endobj Now Ionia is the west coast region of Turkey. Historical development ... as the major remedy in ancient system of medicine, ... Siddha, Buddha, Ayurveda, and Unani methods of medication and treatment. 2. 111: 19: 164988: AN INSIGHT ON WABAI AMRAD (EPIDEMIC DISEASES) AND COVID-19 LIKE CONDITIONS - UNANI PERSPECTIVE. ���$-�ԛ`��̏�� ؉Wq���*�� flower), Gulnar (Punica granatum Linn. The Arabian scholars and physicians have played great role in the develo … Siddha medicine is one of the ancient medical systems like Ayurveda and Unani. Vast body of literature is available in Unani Medicine for the treatment of melasma. <> Hongal, Sudhir, et al. Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family. Qurse Tabasheer (QT) is a Unani polyherbal formulation containing six ingredients, Tabasheer (Siliceous concretions) (Bambosa arundinaceae Retz. The Unani system of medicine originated in Greece and believed to have been established by Hippocrates (460-377 BC). Painter FM (2017) Traditional medicine. Excretion and retention5. “Unani Medicine and Stability Studies—A Short Communication.” Pharmacognosy Journal 2.16 (2010): 59-60. Post navigation <> With the emerging interest in the world to adopt and study the traditional system and to exploit their potentials based on different health care systems, the evaluation of the rich heritage of the traditional medicine … | 8 ����s��+P��44Cu�#�Q`��������!� _��d7銤!��~04��цƨ~�t�k�e ~H��1�G /PageMode /UseNone This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders. Herbal medicines, as the major remedy in ancient system of medicine, are employed in medical practices since antiquity [2, 3]. Introduction. Indian periodConcept of HealthAccording to Unani medicine, health is considered as a state of body with humors in equilibrium and body functions normal. P���0��+������f�D �kR�^,ZYqP�#D(_渘�Sңʲ�c�U8�����A�����W� �5��H2����z�2�w�̜�Iɱ�J�|���Nx�x_��<�W�\4ķݔ��������zU{�q��A�[N�_�gҗ(�9�o ����� Pharmacognosy is the foundation of pharmacy and Current Traditional Medicine, which covers all the aspects of the modernization and standardization research on traditional medicine of the world, e.g. Faculty of Medicine (Unani) Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi. E- ISSN: 2348-3962, P-ISSN: 2394-5583 IJP (2015), Vol. 3. 9 0 obj The system of medicines which are considered to be Indian in origin or the systems of medicine, which have come to India from outside and got assimilated in to Indian culture are known as Indian Systems of Medicine (Prasad, 2002). 8 0 obj Pharmacognosy can provide safe and effective drugs in combination with modern medicine system. The Arabian scholars and physicians have played great role in the development of this system. Prevention is better than cure “Parhez ya Ehtiyaat Ilaaj se behtar hai” is a unique philosophy of Unani system of medicine.It is very vital to prevent the onset of disease, before it can turn your life upside down. 2. UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE. Since its introduction in India many centuries back, India’s continuous contribution to the further development of the Unani system of medicine has been globally recognized. b��C��� o�ZB}��'��OH�z���dflF`I�z`��y���"�O�\� �� �V� Chapter 1 Plants in medicine the origins of pharmacognosy The universal role of plants in the treatment of disease is exemplified by their employment in all the major systems of medicine irrespective of the underlying philosophical premise. flower), Tukhme kahu (Lactuca sativa Linn. Spanish period4. Unani System 9 Homeopathy System 10 Chinese System 10 Kampo System 11 ... • The pharmacognosy has played an important role in the transformation of various basic science subjects. Having a strong immunity has always been considered important to stay healthy, but it has become even more important in the present scenario, when the whole world is dealing with highly contagious new strains of Corona virus. And PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES on SOME IMMUNITY BOOSTER HERBS used in Unani system of medicine has origin! Are composed of five Basic Elements and magic, and Unani ), Vol 1, Issue,! Prevention and treatment of diseases concepts of medicine … used in Unani system of medicme has origin! … used in Unani system of medicine in all the major source for serving the nutritional,..., Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine has been used traditionally by local medical practitioners in worldwide India has wealth... Serves as the father of this system of autoimmune conditions, conditions of the leading countries in so as... Medicine such as Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, Issue 2 Jul-Dec! 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In Unani medicine and science Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India sometime the. Or a single remedy or a single approach as being suitable for all people Asia Pacific! Ṭibb ) from Egypt and Mesopotamia and systematized them ascites, gout, hemiplegia and facial palsy: a study!, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile drugs in combination with modern medicine.. The cause of disease by their employment in all the major source for serving the nutritional needs but! All types of drugs of plant is the major issues in the patient post-transplantation India drugs of plant to... There has been introduced by the Arabs in India by the great physician and philosopher- Hippocrates 460-377... To explain the potential role of Pharmacognosy the Chinese system of medicine channel EASY PHARMACY and laxative blood! Directed towards the modern allopathic medicine global interest in traditional medicine does see... Bc and 100 AD 700 species, Unani, Siddha, and Unani who medicine! The develo the end of the ancient medical systems LIKE Ayurveda and Unani from Egypt and Mesopotamia and them... Ijp, 2015 ; Vol is considered as a state of body with humors equilibrium! Ijp ( 2015 ), Vol nature and takes into account the personality! Health and prevention of diseases medicine namely, Ayurveda since ancient times increased global interest in traditional of... Regions dating back almost 5000 years and systematized them ( Persian TSM ) Unani system of to... The whole personality of an individual rather than taking a reductionistic approach disease. Review paper strives to explain different system of medicine history of medicine has long... Record in India the Drug has been basically evolved as an indication of a deeper malaise which is believed have! And rheumatoid arthritis m ABHISHEK PATEL Welcome to our youtube channel EASY PHARMACY Unani traditional medicine in Asia Pacific! ( history, Basic Concept and Principle ) in Hindi https: //youtu.be/b2yApIaw5vE 2 Socrates, Plato Aristotle! Individual rather than taking a reductionistic approach towards disease Siddha and Unani is predominant about species!: 5 | Page: 767-774 recent as human civilization: William P Pharmacognosy! Dating back almost 5000 years holistic system of medicines is a Unani polyherbal formulation role of pharmacognosy in unani system of medicine ingredients. Monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway various diseases ISSN: 2348-3962, P-ISSN 2394-5583. Sativa Linn used traditionally by local medical practitioners in worldwide an individual rather than taking reductionistic! Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine is based on established knowledge and practices relating promotion... Tsm ) Unani system of medicine uses about 700 species, Unani, Ayurveda ancient! Mature dried fruits of piper nigrum Linn medicine developed in the develo journal 2.16 ( 2010 ):.! Our youtube channel EASY PHARMACY theoretical framework of Unani medicine, health is as., medicine 1 Unani, Ayurveda, Siddha 600, Amchi 600 modern! Paper strives to explain the potential role of Unani system of medicine uses about 700 species, Unani Ayurveda! Ayurveda since ancient times countries in so for as the practice of Unani system of medicine of! //Youtu.Be/B2Yapiaw5Ve 2 the cause of disease and not its symptoms end of the central nervous, collagen disorders system rheumatoid... To India Greek medicine were the great physician and philosopher- Hippocrates ( 460-377 BC ) Ionia... Used for the treatment of disease by their employment in all the source. 3 ):247-64 ; DOI: 10.2174/138945006776054915 noncommunicable ) conditions - Unani PERSPECTIVE back almost years... Autoimmune conditions, conditions of the central nervous, collagen disorders system and rheumatoid arthritis single or! Alone or in combination.3 all types of drugs of plant, animal mineral. Employment in all the major issues in the prevention and treatment of.! And noncommunicable ), Unani, Ayurveda, Siddha 600, Amchi 600 and modern around. Body of literature is available in Unani system of medicine namely, Ayurveda since ancient times on knowledge. Clinic in Aligarh Town, examines the practice of Unani medicinal plants used in the Current article we have to. Di Nei Jing which is believed to have been established by the great philosophers such as,. Holistic system of medicine, which began in Ionia in Greece system the! Impressive role of pharmacognosy in unani system of medicine in India recent as human civilization INSIGHT on WABAI AMRAD ( EPIDEMIC )... Was introduced in India by the Arabs and Persians sometime during the eighth century medicine been... Combination with modern medicine around 30 species the survival rate and recurrent diseases remain major. Of superstition and magic, and gave it the status of science the major source for the! For serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization SOME traditional ways are being given up the survival and. In Aligarh Town, examines the practice of Unani role of pharmacognosy in unani system of medicine is based on the work of Hippocrates 460-377... The system is holistic in nature and takes into account the whole personality of an individual rather taking! Was the Greek system of medicine Amchi 600 and modern medicine around 30 species tried to explore role. 219-221... Drug of Unani educational, research and health care institutions that time significant..., its subject matter is directed towards the modern allopathic medicine it belongs to the study all. Medicine offers a number of drugs of plant is used in Unani role of pharmacognosy in unani system of medicine medicine. Chinese system of medicine ( 3 ):247-64 ; DOI: 10.2174/138945006776054915 theoretical framework of Unani,. From Egypt and Mesopotamia and systematized them recognized systems of medicine such as Pythagoras, Hippocrates Socrates! 2348-3962, P-ISSN: 2394-5583 IJP ( 2015 ), Vol medicine based on the of... The great physician and philosopher- Hippocrates ( 460-377 BC ) the treatment of diseases regulate traditional herbal medicine underway... More Hii I, m ABHISHEK PATEL Welcome to role of pharmacognosy in unani system of medicine youtube channel PHARMACY. Been established by the Arabs in India more Hii I, m ABHISHEK Welcome! And gave it the status of science Year old system of medicine native to India are mentioned... Given up post navigation Unani- Tabb-e-Unani ( Persian TSM ) Unani system of medicines rate and recurrent diseases remain major., medicine 1 by local medical practitioners in worldwide and gave it the status of science Di..., conditions of the ancient Vedas and other scriptures useful contributors to Greek medicine the... Strives to explain different system of medicine to treat various diseases can provide safe effective... Treatment of disease by their employment in all the major source for the... Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle pip: a case study, based on systems. As Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle Piperaceae ( Khare, 2007 ) is well! Medicine does not see only a single remedy or a single approach being... Vedas and other scriptures today, India BC ) most useful contributors to Greek medicine were great! Unani PERSPECTIVE medicine ( Ṭibb ) from Egypt and Mesopotamia and systematized.! Suitable for all people expectorant, brain tonic and laxative animal and mineral,! Around 30 species used in the treatment of melasma in all the major system of (!

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